In the game of chance, there are only two things that guide the game: probability and randomness. Probability refers to the likelihood of an event to occur and it is quantified between 0 to 1 where the impossibility of an event to take place is indicated by zero and one indicates certainty. Randomness, on the other hand, is a mathematical concept that models the real world. It describes the likelihood of a random event to occur in which its occurrence is irrelevant to each other. Even though randomness is mathematically described, it is still non-deterministic nor deterministic. As a result, randomness is employed in computer-generated betting games in a form of random number generator (RNG).

RNG: Establishment of Fair Play


            Random number generator is an algorithm used by game operators to create fairness in the game. This impartiality means that every player has an equal chance to win since the program running the computer releases a random number, but it takes time to achieve victory particularly in betting games since there are a lot of factors that can add to its unpredictability. Hence, RNG undermines the skill of a player.

RNG: Computer Mechanics


            Computer generated randomness uses a multiplex mathematical formula called congruential iteration. Congruential iteration is an algorithm that produces a pseudorandom number solved using a discontinuous piecewise linear equation shown below.

RNG: Computer Mechanics


            Random number is yielded starting with the seed number (Xn) acquired from the computer’s clock followed by multiplying it to a large number (a). It was then added by a large number (c). The result from this is divided by a large prime number (M) wherein the resulting number is a remainder that is returned by  a mathematical operation modulus (m) to be use for the next series of randomization. This “remainder” is usually converted to a certain range that fits to the max number in a betting game; for example, the remainder can be converted within the range of 1 to 32 for a slot reel. The remainder number serves as the first pseudorandom number in the series.

Although it is run by a deterministic machine which is still incapable of generating pure randomness, an attempt to determine the series is costly and arduous. Therefore, one can assure that the game offers equality to its players.

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